Monday, May 23, 2011

Does Ф PHI make a beautiful face?



What are the most common traits of a beautiful face at a glance?

6 facial beauty traits 
-Facial Symmetry
-High youthful Cheekbones 
-Full Lips
-Lateral brow arch high point
-Large and Symmetric eyes
- Narrow nose

Adriana Lima. Victoria's Secret Model

A beautiful face is not difficult to recognize. It transcends cultural barriers and needs no translation. Beauty is what we intuitively imagine it to be since we are young, we recognize it at a mere glance and it is hardwired into our evolutionary mind. An Ideal of what constitutes a beautiful face differs from person to person. The proverbial “beauty is in the eye of the beholder” by Plato, is an aphorism that describes this subjective impression perfectly. There is however, in general, a consensus regarding what an attractive face looks like, whether or not it strikes an individual as a beautiful face.
This all too subjective, but symbolic mental image is known as archetype.
An Archetype, in the simplest of terms, refers to a pattern of behaviors, prototype from which others originate, or are emulated; a recognizable icon or stereotype.
Examples of this idea are the pictures found in a deck of Tarot Cards that symbolize universally understood characters , or the celestial beauty depicted in Sandro Botticelli’s painting “The Birth of Venus”.
Although the description in the field of psychology of this notion was described by Carl Jung in the early 20th century, its manifestation is evident in the late 18th and early 19th Century neoclassical paintings and sculpture.

Some of the first attempts to establish universal craniofacial measurements were in Egypt as far back as the third millenium B.C.
 Elaborate systems to estimate facial proportions were devised by Egyptian artists to allow bas-relief tomb carvings for the pharoahs and nobilty.




Description of Neoclassical Canons2 (Formula In Reference)
Formula No.
Description
2
Forehead height nose length lower face height
4
Nose length ear length
5
Interocular distance nose width
6
Interocular distance right or left eye fissure width
7
Mouth width 1.nose width
8
Face width nose width

Cannon of fifths with endocanthal (inner eyelid)distance roughly
the width of the nose or a full eye.
Image courtesy of
wallpapers-diq.com 

Neoclassical Ratios Dividing the face into proportionate segments and ratios on the right for facial proportions in  females
Victorias Secret Model Adriana Lima

What is Anthropometry?
In the mid 17th Century, anthropometry surged as a new method for elucidating craniofacial dimensions in a more accurate way.
Anthropometry is the measurement of human landmarks and proportions both directly from human subjects and indirectly from photographs. It is utilized in various fields of science and art, such as anthropology, forensic sciences, sculpture and illustration. In the context of cosmetic and reconstructive craniomaxillofacial surgery, this is an initial step toward understanding what can be corrected to establish a pleasing facial symmetry. It also establishes a clear language for communication of data with others

What is Phi?
Phi is  the ratio found in nature repeatedly. Greek sculptors, neoclassical painters and other artists have used it to portray a beautiful face. 
1:1.618 is the golden ratio. From it, you can derive a triangle as the base for several overlapping geometrical shapes. A blueprint of this rule was created by retired Oral Maxillofacial Surgeon. Dr Stephen Marquardt, and came to be known as Marquardt's mask or the "Golden Mask"

When superimposed on a beautiful face, you can see how they match almost flawlessly 

The Facial Beauty Mask is courtesy of, and copyright by, Dr. Stephen Marquadt. | Face image by Sean Armenta.



These shapes and ratios seem to repeat themselves over and over again in what is universally considered a beautiful face.
Marquardt's golden mask shows clear ratios throughout the beautiful face. For Example, the mouth is 1.618 time wider than the base of the nose; the nose base is 1.6 times wider than the tip of the nose; The triangle formed by a beautiful persons nose and lips is a perfect acute triangle... and so on...


The instrument used to measure this ratio in  a plastic surgeons office is called a "Golden Mean Gauge"



Golden Mean Gauge: Made in USA by Natural Pigments




















Even the ratio of  a beautiful lower to upper lip follow this golden ratio by 1:1.680. This is especially important when considering a natural and beautiful appearance by using fillers or fat grafting for lip augmentation.
In the hands of a capable plastic surgeon with a good sense of aesthetics this can result in the "perfect pout" 
So... What are perfect lips, and what is the secret to natural full lips...                                          
Read  the "Perfect Pout" for more information on lip augmentation with fillers or surgery.
Beautiful cheek bones
High cheekbones are one of the findings in an attractive face. It is in fact, not the bone itself, but rather a fat pad which lays normally at the height of the orbital rim (the lower eye bone) and is at the level of the lower limbus of the Iris. With time, this fat pad descends due to gravity and contributes to the ageing appearance of the face. One of the objectives in maintaining a youthful appearance through cosmetic surgery, is to preserve the height and natural oval appearance of the "cheek bone".  Several methods have been described, including Fat grafting, Dermal Fillers and Polyethylene implants. My personal preference is the use of Fat grafting due to it's natural appearance and long lasting effect. The symmetry of the natural and youthful appearing cheek bone also follows the golden ratio.
















*Always consult with your plastic surgeon prior to undergoing any cosmetic procedure.Make sure your cosmetic surgeon is an ABPS (American Board Of Plastic Surgery) Board Certified or Board Eligible Plastic surgeon.





Stay Tuned…….


Bibliography:

1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archetype; Accessed on 4/19/11.
2. L.G. Farkas, T.A. Hreczko, J.C. Kolar, I.R. Munro, Vertical and horizontal
proportions of the face in young adult North American Caucasians:
revision of neoclassical canons, Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 75 (1985)
328–337.
3.John C. Kolar, Elizabeth M. Salter; Craniofacial Anthropometry: Practical Measurement of the Head and Face for Clinical, Surgical, and Research Use. Charles C Thomas Pub Ltd (March 1997)
4.Guyron. Plastic Surgery:Indications and Practice. Chapter 29 "Cephalometrics,Anthropometrics,Orthodontics"

1 comment:

Houston Plastic Surgeon said...

This is an excellent article, Dr. Magana. It's very informative and very well written. I think it's imperative that every plastic surgeon knows what's the "ideal beauty".

Emmanuel De La Cruz MD, PLLC of Houston
http://woodlandsplasticsurgery.blogspot.com
www.delacruzplasticsurgery.com